Dysgenesis: Abnormal development (dysgenesis) of the neuromuscular system can result in a chronic disability. An example of this is spina bifida.
Injury to the Central Nervous System: Injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in a chronic neuromuscular disability with associated abnormalities in limb growth, muscle tone, impaired control over limb movement and altered function. These injuries can be primary as is seen in trauma or secondary as a result of a disease state and its treatments such as cerebral palsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis or cancer.
Injury to the Peripheral Nervous System: Injury to the nerves outside the CNS (the peripheral nervous system or PNS) can also result in chronic neuromuscular disabilities that will result in muscle weakness or paralysis, limb deformity including stunting in growth in young children and alteration in limb function. These injuries include injuries to the brachial plexus in newborns (obstetrical brachial plexus palsy) and older individuals. Secondary injuries can also occur to the PNS at the time of radiation treatment or biopsy of masses.