• ​Neuromuscular System: A disability that affects the neuromuscular system will result in difficulties with motor function.  Abnormalities in limb movement can also cause difficulties with positioning of the body for optimal function and comfort.
  • Skeletal System: A chronic neuromuscular disability can cause distortion in bone growth and abnormalities in joint mobility due to abnormal muscle tone.  This in turn will affect movement and positioning.  Pain can commonly accompany these problems also.
  • Digestive System: The associated increase in muscle tone or stiffness can interfere with eating due to difficulties in coordinating chewing and swallowing.  There can also be problems with constipation and reflux of food from the stomach into the lungs.  These problems can lead to poor nutrition and respiratory problems such as asthma and pneumonia. 
  • Urological System: ​The muscles that control the flow of urine and our ability to store urine in the bladder can be just as affected by tone or stiffness as the muscles of the arms and legs.  This results in problems with incontinence (difficulty holding urine in one;s bladder) and/or retention (difficulty in initiating urination or in completely emptying the bladder when urinating).  These problems can result in infection and, in the case of retention, can lead to kidney damage.
  • Skin: ​The difficulties in movement and positioning commonly seen with a neuromuscular disability can put the skin at risk for pressure sores and infections.

What Is Affected by a Chronic Neuromuscular Disability